Shimkhada, R., & Ponce, N. A. (2022). Surveying hate and its effects during the COVID-19 pandemic among Asian Americans and Native Hawaiians and Pacific Islanders. American Journal of Public Health, 112(12), 1446-1453. https://doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.2022.306977.

Year: 2021

Questionnaire topics related to hate: Multiple topics focused on discrimination and hate incidents or crimes, depending on survey (see Supplement Table A. Asian and Native Hawaiian Pacific Islander (AANHPI) COVID-19 Impact Surveys Examining Hate)

Method: multiple data collection modalities via online or telephone 

Sample size: Samples sizes range from 500 to 21,000 depending on survey

Population: Some surveys included all race categories and others specifically focused on AA & NHPI; national and California specific

Languages supported: Variety of languages, including English, supported depending on survey

Summary of findings: Of the five surveys estimating whether respondents had been direct victims of a hate incident, estimates ranged from 6% to 30%. In the California Health Interview Survey (CHIS), 28% of respondents experienced or witnessed a hate incident. Experiencing or witnessing a hate incident was significantly associated with serious psychological distress, forgoing care, and not feeling safe in one’s neighborhood.