Author: Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI)

Year(s): 1991-2022

Method: Hate crime data for the nation are derived from National Incident-Based Reporting System (NIBRS) and Summary Reporting System (SRS) reports voluntarily submitted to the FBI by various law enforcement agencies. Law enforcement agencies report hate crimes brought to their attention monthly or quarterly to the FBI either through the state Uniform Crime Reporting (UCR) programs or directly. Hate crimes are motivated, in whole or in part, by the offender’s bias against a race, gender, gender identity, religion, disability, sexual orientation, or ethnicity, and were committed against people, property, or society. Because motivation is subjective, it is sometimes difficult to know with certainty whether a crime resulted from the offender’s bias. The presence of bias alone does not necessarily mean that a crime can be considered a hate crime. Only when a law enforcement investigation reveals sufficient evidence to lead a reasonable and prudent person to conclude that the offender’s actions were motivated, in whole or in part, by their bias, should an agency report an incident as a hate crime.

Population: All race categories; National

Summary of findings: Anti-Black hate crimes constitute one of the largest number of cases reported to the FBI with 3,499 cases in 2020, 3,297 cases in 2021, and 3,424 cases in 2022. The number of documented anti-Asian hate crimes spiked in 2021 with 753 cases in comparison to 334 cases in 2020 and 499 cases in 2022. Faith-based hate crimes also saw an increase in 2021 with 191 anti-Sikh cases as compared to 92 cases in 2020 and 181 cases in 2022.