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Forty million foreign-born people lived in the United States in 2010, according to the American Community Survey (ACS). The majority (83 percent) of the foreign born reported entering the United States prior to 2005. Using 2010 ACS data on the period of entry of the foreign-born population, this report focuses on the “newly arrived” foreign born, defined here as those who came to live in the United States in 2005 or later. Seven million U.S. residents or 17 percent of the foreign-born population are classified as newly arrived in this report.